Clove Plantation Sulawesi
- The clove plantation in and North Sulawesi was developed as a forest regeneration concession. The plantation is situated near Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park and is adjacent to other managed reserves. The Conservation programs complemented other conservation activities in the area leading to a large scale “landscape level” conservation program. This clove plantation was developed as a model for sustainable eco-conservation with technical support of Level Growth to allow the company to become an agro-conservation leader in the private sector in Southeast Asia. The 4800 hectare plantation consist of in mosaic of 1750 hectors of clove trees interspersed among 3000 hectares of prime secondary coastal forest. This combination provides for abundant “forest edge habitat’ supporting high levels of biodiversity and provides forest connectivity for wildlife movement throughout the plantation and adjoining high value conservation areas.
Rainforest Alliance Audit
Certification Audit Report
HPHT PINOLOSIAN (BUMBUNG, LOMBOGOWON,
TAPAKMOYONDIK&TAMONOK RESORTS) PT KAWANUAKAHURIPANPANTERA MAKIN GROUP
Farm crops: Clove
Date of report submission: 8 October 2015
Audit start date: 14 September 2015
Audit end date: 18 September 2015
Name(s) of the auditor(s): Angga Maulana Yusuf (Lead Auditor)
Benedictus ( Support Auditor )
Rainforest Alliance CertifiedTM
Certification Audit Report
(BUMBUNG, LOMBOGOWON, TAPAKMOYONDIK&TAMONOK RESORTS)
1.1 Summary of farm scores
Farm name: HPHT PINOLOSIAN (RESORT BUMBUNG, TAPAKMOYONDI, LUMBUGOWON&TAMONOK) - PT KAWANUA KAHURIPAN PANTERA
1.2 Conclusion of the audit team
The audit team of RA-Cert concludes that HPHT Pinolosian (Bumbung, Lombogowon, Tamonok & Tapak Moyondi resorts) PT KAWANUA KAHURIPAN PANTERA complies with the current version of the normative documents of the Sustainable Agriculture Network used for this audit (see Section 3).The certification decision is granted by the Certification Committee ofRA-Cert, a division of the Rainforest Alliance.
2.1 General description, strengths or changes since the previous audit Certification experience
This is the first experience for PT Kawanua Kahuripan Pantera (hereinafter called KKP) joined the Rainforest Alliance certification program. On February 2015 KKPhasconducted diagnostic audit against SAN Standard. KKP is part of thePT. MatahariKahuripan Indonesia
Social and environmental management system
KKP itself has social and environmental management system which developed from the existing ISO 14001 system and SAN-RA Standard and requirements.KKP upper management are responsible to monitor the implementation of the SEMS while at the field level the supervisors are responsible on the implementation and documentation of the SEMS. Based on the diagnostic audit, risk assessment and internal audit, the farm developed action plan with list of activities to be conducted in each program, and a timeline or plan indicating when they will be implemented, identification of the persons responsible for carrying out the activities. Policies, procedure, working instructions are established to ensure efficient execution of the activities and compliance with the standard. Records of the SEMS program are available during the audit.
For its environmental management system, KKP has made program that targeted for better biodiversity assessment until the end of 2015. A part of it, is implementation of SMART Patrol which training will be made a week after this audit.
There is further mid and long term program prepared at MAKIN group holding level which also detailed enhancing cooperation with WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society), BKSDA (Balai Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam) and ZSL (Zoological Society of London) for biodiversity protection such as Maleo movement corridor making initiative. However these documents have not yet being reviewed during this audit.
Ecosystem and biodiversity conservation
KKP started its plantation forest concession in 2002 by handling part of 7500 ha area from PT Sandi Jaya Satria primary forest logging concession. The area divided into ex logging area logged on 1981, 1992 and 1993. By 2002 Environment Impact Assessment report/ EIAreport (ANDAL) the leftover potency of logging area has been decreased to an average level of 14.53 trees per ha or 15.36 cu.m per ha. KKP started its conversion by using strip planting of clove from 2002. Logging operation to prepare area intended for clove plantation are completed on 31st October 2005 which consider current clove plantation area as non-natural ecosystem.
The destruction of natural ecosystem has been studied prior to conversion through Environmental Impact Analysis (AMDAL) and there are mitigation action plan made. Most important action plans highlighted defined in EIA are wildlife corridor making, putting on prohibition for hunting signage and unique/ protected wildlife habitat management as well as conservation zone making along riparian area and places providing food for wildlife.
Action plans defined in EIA, strengthened by macro and micro delineation study finalized in 2013 resulted in allocation of 1215 ha divided into 147.4 ha riparian zone, 810.4 ha germplasm area and 257.2 ha wildlife conservation area. From this target, realization are 114.4 ha riparian zone (78%), germplasm area as much as 810.4 ha (100%) and 257.2 ha (100%) wildlife conservation area. Apart from area for clove plantation, KKP has also designated area for local valuable tree plantation with existing species mostly are Nyatoh and Cempaka as much as 1733.8 ha.
Protected endemic tree species such as AgathisPhilippinensis are left alone and not subject to clearing even if they are located in clove plantation area. This tree also becoming sleeper tree for MacacaNigra (Yaki) groups during their migration/ movement. This usually can be seen from bending pattern of the tree branches. In conservation area audit team can also observe footstep of anoa and abandoned wild boar birthing place as well as endemic Palm with stilt roots (Areca Vestiaria) or locally called Pinang Yaki (favourite food source for Yaki).
Further study on wildlife identification and habitat has been made in cooperation with Forestry Department of Gajah Mada University, University of Sam Ratulangi and Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS).
Audit team happened to view Rangkong and Nuri Sulawesi and also hear Tarsius. Few moment prior closing meeting, groups of Yaki shows up around guest house looking for food from surrounding tree.
Social and working conditions
KKP social policy and regulation version 2014 -2015 are available which covered the rights and responsibilities of the administration and workers, with emphasis on labor aspects, living conditions, basic services, occupational health and safety, training opportunities and community relations. KKP employees are divided into two types, namely permanent employees and temporary worker. Permanent employees (recruited through selection process formally) has more benefits from company beside basic salary, namely: health insurance (outpatient and inpatient), annual bonus, annual leave. While temporary piece rate workers (e.g. harvester and hand-sorters) are paid weekly by farm and under supervision of farm. The temporary workers registered in Jamsostek, including free access to the company clinic A labor union are established at the KKP with member approximately 200 workers consist of permanent and temporary workers. The KKP and the Labor Union has mutual agreement regarding social policy.
The wage calculation for the clove harvesters and the hand-sorters for clove flower stem separation called “Cude” in local language based on average productivity of the workers in the cloves sector at the Minahasa regency which are 23 kg per day (7 hours works) for harvesters and 49 kg per day (7 hours works) for hand-sorters. As observed from the records shows that the average skill of the workers (harvester and hand-sorters) in Bolaang Mongondow are lower than workers in Minahasa regency, this caused the average daily wage of those workers are below Sulawesi Utara minimum wage. The North Sulawesi province minimum wage for 2015 is IDR 2 150 000/month (IDR 86 000/day; IDR12 285.7 per hour ), while the workers in Minahasa regency are lower, as describe in finding below.
The farm management has been required hand-sorters to filled attendance list to records their working time, but it still could not guarantee that working time is used effectively by the workers. Field observations shows that the workers have not optimally utilized the working time.
Worker emplacement are provided for permanent worker. Shelter are provided around field for around 25 ha per shelter which is assigned to 1 foreman. Drinking water are provided as well as working equipment & protection. For plucker PPE is helmet and safety shoes. For cude no PPE needed but simple dust mask. For sprayer team PPE are overall, mask with respirator, googles, hat, rubber booths and rubber gloves.
Community relation is considered very important and therefore KKP assign Mr.Bonde as head of this department. All correspondences between communities and their members are recorded and existing logbook shows correspondence track from 2008. Should there be a problem with community member, such as stealing of clove from plantation will be brought to justice, but additional follow up will be made by socialization to community where the member belong. This approach considered very important to avoid misunderstanding between KKP and community. Minutes of meeting are recorded in logbook administered by Mr. Bonde.
KKP is also involved in community economy empowerment in which it provide opportunity for villagers from communities around KKP to work as daily labor apart from permanent employment. Exclusively for village Kombot and Lungkap, KKP has special partnership in which both of village cooperative clove plantations are managed by KKP and profit (sales value after operation cost deduction) are shared equally between KKP and village cooperatives. KKP also promotes village cooperatives land status recognition process as Community Forest (Hutan Kemasyarakatan) from Forest Ministry of Indonesia which has been appealed on November 2014. This process has been confirmed by Province Forestry office (which also involved in recognition proposal process) through stakeholder email response.
Clove is traditionally planted at smallholder level. KKP is the first to cultivate clove at plantation level. Variety used is Avo which is endemic in Ternate (island lay around 500 km to the east). First clove planting is made in 2002 and final planting period is on 2006. Clove tree replanting are made to replace previously defective clove tree. In particular to replace defective tree caused by strong wind in March 2012 (7500 clove trees) and January 2013 (2692 clove trees). Clove harvest time are vary from every 12-24 months. KKP has learnt out from its experience that clove production decreased by elevation, for instance clove tree on 900 m elevation above sea level (asl) produce as low as 30% from clove tree planted on up 500 m asl. Fungus is also become problem for clove tree in high elevation.
Harvest are largely affected by rain. Should there be heavy rain during flowering period, tree will response significant increase in soil moisture by dropping its flower. Because of this high uncertainty, it is not strange that production forecast misses the reality by 50%. Latest harvest (2014) resulted in 72.88 ton but in the previous 2 years are only in the range of 40-50 ton.
Main pest of clove tree are termites, and the treatment is by mechanical rooting of the tree once it is dead because of termites. Usually the tree are dead after 2 weeks of infestation. KKP has already made some study and plan to use Metarhizium anisopliae fungus to counter this problem.
The farm has integrated crop management covered pest management and the use of fertilizer. The productive area is covered by a layer of organic matter (dead and decaying biomass - mulch, grass, leaves, branches, etc.). The farm has tried to reduce agrochemical inputs, both pesticide and fertilizers, and change them with bio pesticide or fertilizer from natural materials. The used of WHO class II pesticide (i.e. fipronil) are reduced.
Dadap (Erythrina) is originally planted along the road to serve also as wind breaker, however from strong wind incidence in 2011, 2012, 2013 it appears that dadap (Erythrina Lithosperma) also cannot withstand those incidence. Jabon (Antocephalus cadamba) is now planted in intercrop with clove to serve this function and also serve as additional income for pulp material. Another intercrop that is already introduced is agarwood (Aquillaria spp). Recently it is found local endemic agarwood species in its herbarium from Gyrinops genus.
Infrastructure, processing and packing
KKP has centralized office in Lombogowon Resort. Main emplacement and warehouse facility are located in this Resort. Another emplacement and receiving (and overnight warehouse) station is also exist in Bumbung Resort. In both location, the only processing is only “cude” or clove flower stem separation. All functional PPE and agrochemical are stored in Resort Lombogowon although some old agrochemical is still stored in Resort Bumbung warehouse.
Every plucker will have its clove bag equipped with tag detailing name of plucker, date, clove tree block and after weighing also have amount of plucked clove flower weight. The bag will be transferred to “cude” worker which after the process a tag will be put on the bag detailing name of cude worker, date, and amount of clove flower crown weight.