JAMES ELSE, DVM, is Chief Environmental Science consultant to Level Growth, LLC. He served as the Associate Director, Animal Resources, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, and Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory School of Medicine, Emory University. Prior to joining Emery, Jim was Deputy Director for Science, Kenya Wildlife Service, Nairobi, Kenya, and in Uganda has served as Institutional Development Advisor, Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife, and Policy and Planning Advisor, Ministry of Tourism, Trade and Industry. He orchestrated the development and implementation of the first sustainable national wildlife systems for both countries, and consults internationally for institutions in long term development and management of sustainable life systems. He has served as a Visiting Research Scholar, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Assoc. Adjunct Professor, Dept. of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Davis, Associate Professor, Dept. of Environmental and Population Health, Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, and Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He was Co-Director, Envirovet Program in Wildlife and Ecosystem Health, served as chair of the IPS Committee on the Standards and Ethics of Animal Care, the Captive Care Committee, International Primatological Society, and served on the Captive Breeding Specialist Group, IUCN Species Survival Commission. He is a current member of the Institute of Primate Research International Advisory Board, the UCSD/Salk Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny (CARTA), the New England National Primate Research Center External Scientific Advisory Board Member, and the Harvard Medical School Blue Ribbon Panel. He received his BS, MS, ,Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, Masters of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, all from the University of California. He has been a consultant to the World Bank and the World Health Organization as well as the Scripps Research Institute. He is on the editorial board of Primate Conservation, Journal of Medical Primatology, Museum of Comparative Anthropogeny. Dr. Else is a licensed Veterinary inCalifornia, Oregon, and the Republic of Kenya.